Metal Building Glossary - "S"

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Building Terms:

S Shape ("S" Shape)
A hot rolled beam with narrow tapered flanges.

Sag Member
A tension member such as rods, straps or angles used to limit the deflection of a girt or purlin in the direction of its weak axis.

Sandwich Panel
A panel used as covering consisting of an insulating core material with inner and outer metal skins.

Screw Down Roof System
A system in which the roof panels are attached directly to the roof substructure with fasteners, which penetrate through the roof sheets and into the substructure.

Scupper
An opening in a gutter or parapet system, which prevents ponding.

Sealant
Any material, which is used to seal cracks, joints or laps.

Seaming Machine
A mechanical device that is used to close and seal the side seams of standing seam roof panels.

Secondary Framing
Members, which carry loads from the building surface to the main framing. For example; purlins and girts.

Sectional Overhead Doors
Doors constructed in horizontally hinged sections. They are equipped with springs, tracks, counter balancers, and other hardware, which roll the sections into an overhead position, clear of the opening.

Seismic Load
The lateral load acting in any direction on a structural system due the action of an earthquake.

Self Drilling Screw
A fastener which combines the function of drilling and tapping.

Self Tapping Screw
A fastener which taps its own threads in a pre drilled hole.

Shear
The force tending to make two contracting parts slide upon each other in opposite directions parallel to their plane of contact.

Shear Diaphragm
See "Diaphragm Action".

Shear Force
A force acting on a body which tends to slide one portion of the body against the other portion of the body. (sliding action)

Shim
A piece of steel used to level base plates or align columns or beams.

Shop Primer Paint
The initial coat of primer paint applied in the shop. A temporary coating designed to protect the steel for limited amount of time until it is in the dry. "This coating may or may not serve as a proper prime coat for other finishing paints.

Shot Pin
See "Power Fastener".

Side Lap Fastener
A fastener used to connect panels together at their side lap.

Sidewall
An exterior wall which is perpendicular to the frames of a building system.

Sill
The bottom horizontal framing member of a wall opening such as a window or louver.

Simple Connection
See "Pin Connection".

Simple Span
A term used in structural design to describe a beam support condition at two points which offers no resistance to rotation at the supports.

Single Slope
A sloping roof in one plane. The slope is from one sidewall to the opposite sidewall.

Single Span
A building or structural member without intermediate support.

Siphon Break
A small groove to arrest the capillary action of two adjacent surfaces. (Anti-Capillary Groove).

Sister Column
See "Crane Support Column".

Skylight
A roof accessory to admit light into a building, normally mounted on a curbed framed opening.

Slide Door
A single or double leaf door which opens horizontally by means of sliding on an overhead trolley.

Sliding Clip
A standing seam roof system hold down clip which allows the roof panel to move independently on the roof substructure.

Slope
See "Roof Slope".

Snow Drift
See "Drift (Snow)".

Snow Load
See "Roof Snow Load".

Snug Tight
The tightness of a bolt in a connection that exists when all plies in a joint are in firm contact.

Soffit
A material which covers the underside of an overhang.

Soil Bearing Pressure
The load per unit area a structure will exert through its foundation on the soil.

Solar Reflectance Index (SRI)
The SRI is used to determine compliance with LEED requirements and is calculated according to ASTM E 1980 using values for reflectance and emissivity. Emissivity is a material's ability to release absorbed energy. To meet LEED requirements, a roofing material must have an SRI of 29 or higher for steep slope (above 2:12) roofing and an SRI value of 78 or higher for low slope (2:12 or less) roofing.

Solar Reflectivity (SR)
Solar reflectivity or reflectance is the ability of a material to reflect solar energy from its surface back into the atmosphere. The SR value is a number from 0 to 1.0. A value of 0 indicates that the material absorbs all solar energy and a value of 1.0 indicates total reflectance. Energy Star requires an SR value of 0.25 or higher for steep slope (above 2:12) roofing and an SR value of 0.65 or higher for low slope (2:12 or less) roofing.

Soldier Column
An intermediate column used to support secondary structurals; not part of a main frame or beam and column system.

Spacer Strut (Crane)
A type of assembly used to keep the end trucks of adjacent cranes on the same runway beams a minimum specified distance apart.

Span
The distance between two supports.

Specification (Metal Building Systems)
A statement of a set of Metal Building System requirements describing the loading conditions, design practices, materials and finishes.

Splice
A connection in a structural member.

Spreader Bar
An elongated bar with attached hooks and/or chains used from a crane to lift long sections of panels, or structural members such as rafters.

Spud Wrench
A wrench with a tapered handle used to line up holes and to make up bolted connections.

Square
Term used for an area of 100 square feet.

Stainless Steel
An alloy of steel, which contains a high percentage of chromium to increase corrosion resistance. Also may contain nickel or copper.

Standing Seam
Side joints of roof panels that are arranged in a vertical position above the roof line.

Standing Seam Roof System
A roof system in which the side laps between the roof panels are arranged in a vertical position above the roof line. The roof panel system is secured to the roof substructure by means of concealed hold down clips attached with screws to the substructure, except that through fasteners may be used at limited locations such as ends of panels and at roof penetrations.

Stiffener
A member used to strengthen a plate against lateral or local buckling.

Stiffener Lip
A short extension of material at an angle to the flange of cold formed structural members, which adds strength to the member.

Stiles
The vertical side members of framed and paneled doors.

Stitch Screw
A fastener connecting panels together at the sidelap.

Straight Tread Wheels
Crane wheels with flat-machined treads and double flanges which limit the lateral movement of a crane.

Strain
The deformation per unit length measured in the direction of the stress caused by forces acting on a member. Not the same as deflection.

Stress
A measure of the load on a structural member in terms of force per unit area.

Strut
A member fitted into a framework, which resists axial compressive forces.

Stud
A vertical wall member to which exterior or interior covering or collateral material may be attached. May be either load bearing or non-load bearing.

Suspension System
The system, rigid or flexible, used to suspend the runway beams of under hung or monorail cranes from the rafter of the building frames.

Sweep
The amount of deviation of straightness of a structural section measured perpendicular to the web of the member


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